Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids regulate macrophage polarization and prevent LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction

J Cell Physiol. 2015 Sep;230(9):2108-19. doi: 10.1002/jcp.24939.


Macrophages, owning tremendous phenotypic plasticity and diverse functions, were becoming the target cells in various inflammatory, metabolic and immune diseases. Cytochrome P450 epoxygenase 2J2 (CYP2J2) metabolizes arachidonic acid to form epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which possess various beneficial effects on cardiovascular system. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of EETs treatment on macrophage polarization and recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated CYP2J2 expression on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cardiac dysfunction, and sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms. In vitro studies showed that EETs (1µmol/L) significantly inhibited LPS-induced M1 macrophage polarization and diminished the proinflammatory cytokines at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level; meanwhile it preserved M2 macrophage related molecules expression and upregulated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Furthermore, EETs down-regulated NF-κB activation and up-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα/γ) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression, which play important roles in regulating M1 and M2 polarization. In addition, LPS treatment in mice induced cardiac dysfunction, heart tissue damage and infiltration of M1 macrophages, as well as the increase of inflammatory cytokines in serum and heart tissue, but rAAV-mediated CYP2J2 expression increased EETs generation in heart and significantly attenuated the LPS-induced harmful effects, which mechanisms were similar as the in vitro study. Taken together, the results indicate that CYP2J2/EETs regulates macrophage polarization by attenuating NF-κB signaling pathway via PPARα/γ and HO-1 activation and its potential use in treatment of inflammatory diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic Acid / administration & dosage*
  • 8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic Acid / analogs & derivatives
  • Animals
  • Cell Polarity / genetics
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2J2
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / biosynthesis*
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / genetics
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / therapeutic use
  • Gene Expression Regulation / genetics
  • Heme Oxygenase-1 / genetics
  • Inflammation / chemically induced
  • Inflammation / genetics*
  • Inflammation / therapy
  • Lipopolysaccharides / toxicity
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Macrophages / pathology
  • Mice
  • Myocardium / metabolism*
  • Myocardium / pathology
  • NF-kappa B / genetics
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • PPAR alpha / genetics
  • PPAR alpha / metabolism
  • PPAR gamma / genetics
  • Signal Transduction / genetics


  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • NF-kappa B
  • PPAR alpha
  • PPAR gamma
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2J2
  • Heme Oxygenase-1
  • 8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic Acid