PERIODONTAL DISEASE AND AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION: Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III

Retina. 2015 May;35(5):982-8. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000000427.


Purpose: To study the association between periodontal disease (PD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Methods: For this cross-sectional analysis, 8,208 adults aged 40 years or older with retinal photographs graded for AMD were used from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III standardized dental measurements of PD status (defined as loss of >3 mm of attachment between the gum and tooth in at least 10% of sites measured). Participants were stratified into 60 years or younger and older than 60 years of age groups. Association between PD and AMD was assessed while controlling for sex, race, education, poverty income ratio, smoking, hypertension, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, and C-reactive protein.

Results: In this population, a total of 52.30% had PD, and the prevalence of AMD was 11.45%. Logistic regression model controlled for confounders and stratified by age 60 years or younger versus older than 60 years showed PD to be independently associated with an increased risk for AMD (odds ratio = 1.96, 95% confidence interval = 1.22-3.14, P = 0.006) for those aged 60 years or younger but not for subjects older than 60 years (odds ratio = 1.32, confidence interval = 0.93-1.90, P = 0.120).

Conclusion: In this population-based study, PD is independently associated with AMD in those aged 60 years or younger.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Macular Degeneration / epidemiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Surveys / statistics & numerical data*
  • Odds Ratio
  • Oral Health
  • Periodontal Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology