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, 21 (2), 368-71

Influenza D Virus in Cattle, France, 2011-2014

Influenza D Virus in Cattle, France, 2011-2014

Mariette F Ducatez et al. Emerg Infect Dis.

Abstract

A new influenza virus, genus D, isolated in US pigs and cattle, has also been circulating in cattle in France. It was first identified there in 2011, and an increase was detected in 2014. The virus genome in France is 94%-99% identical to its US counterpart, which suggests intercontinental spillover.

Figures

Figure
Figure
Phylogenetic trees of the 7 gene segments of D/bovine/France/2986/2012 influenza virus at the nucleotide level. A) PB2. B) PB1. C) P3/PA. D) Nucleoprotein E) P42/Matrix. F) Nonstructural protein. G) Hemagglutinin-esterase. Maximum-likelihood analysis with 500 bootstrap replicates (bootstrap values >75 are indicated on the tree nodes). The gene sequences of D/bovine/France/2986/2012 (in large bold underlined font) were compared with representatives of all the Orthomyxoviridae genera: all the viral strains used in (1). P, polymerase, nucleoprotein, PB, polymerase basic  Scale bars indicate nucleotide substitutions per site.

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