Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 21 (2), 368-71

Influenza D Virus in Cattle, France, 2011-2014

Influenza D Virus in Cattle, France, 2011-2014

Mariette F Ducatez et al. Emerg Infect Dis.


A new influenza virus, genus D, isolated in US pigs and cattle, has also been circulating in cattle in France. It was first identified there in 2011, and an increase was detected in 2014. The virus genome in France is 94%-99% identical to its US counterpart, which suggests intercontinental spillover.


Phylogenetic trees of the 7 gene segments of D/bovine/France/2986/2012 influenza virus at the nucleotide level. A) PB2. B) PB1. C) P3/PA. D) Nucleoprotein E) P42/Matrix. F) Nonstructural protein. G) Hemagglutinin-esterase. Maximum-likelihood analysis with 500 bootstrap replicates (bootstrap values >75 are indicated on the tree nodes). The gene sequences of D/bovine/France/2986/2012 (in large bold underlined font) were compared with representatives of all the Orthomyxoviridae genera: all the viral strains used in (1). P, polymerase, nucleoprotein, PB, polymerase basic  Scale bars indicate nucleotide substitutions per site.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 46 PubMed Central articles

See all "Cited by" articles


    1. Hause BM, Collin EA, Liu R, Huang B, Sheng Z, Lu W, et al. Characterization of a novel influenza virus in cattle and swine: proposal for a new genus in the Orthomyxoviridae family. MBio. 2014;5:e00031–14. 10.1128/mBio.00031-14 - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Jiang WM, Wang SC, Peng C, Yu JM, Zhuang QY, Hou GY, et al. . Identification of a potential novel type of influenza virus in Bovine in China. Virus Genes. 2014;49:493–6.10.1371/journal.ppat.1003176 - DOI - PubMed
    1. Hause BM, Ducatez M, Collin EA, Ran Z, Liu R, Sheng Z, et al. Isolation of a novel swine influenza virus from Oklahoma in 2011 which is distantly related to human influenza C viruses. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003176. 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003176 - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Kim JI, Park MS. N-linked glycosylation in the hemagglutinin of influenza A viruses. Yonsei Med J. 2012;53:886–93. 10.3349/ymj.2012.53.5.886 - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Sun S, Wang Q, Zhao F, Chen W, Li Z. Glycosylation site alteration in the evolution of influenza A (H1N1) viruses. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22844. 10.1371/journal.pone.0022844 - DOI - PMC - PubMed

Publication types

LinkOut - more resources