Cyclophosphamide, hydroxyurea, actinomycin D, methotrexate, and vincristine in the treatment of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia

Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2015 Mar;25(3):498-503. doi: 10.1097/IGC.0000000000000383.


Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity profile of the cyclophosphamide, hydroxyurea, actinomycin D, methotrexate, and vincristine (CHAMOC) regimen in the treatment of high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of all patients with GTN treated with the CHAMOC regimen between 1985 and 2012 in a tertiary referral center in Hong Kong. Medical records were reviewed, and data were analyzed. Response rate and toxicity profile were assessed.

Results: The CHAMOC regimen was given to 79 patients from 1985 to 2012, with a total of 388 cycles administered. Among the 79 patients, CHAMOC was given to 68 as the primary treatment of high-risk GTN, whereas it was used as the salvage chemotherapy in 11 patients for failure with other chemotherapy regimens or recurrent disease. Complete remission was achieved in 58 patients (85.3%) in the primary treatment group and 8 patients (72.7%) in the salvage treatment group. Grade 3 and grade 4 neutropenia were observed in 13.0% and 3.4% of the chemotherapy cycles, respectively. Grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia was rare (1.3% of all treatment cycles). No secondary malignancy was observed in our patients with a mean duration of follow-up of 9.7 to 13 years, except 1 patient with advanced colon cancer diagnosed shortly after chemotherapy, which was unlikely to represent a secondary malignancy from the chemotherapy.

Conclusions: The CHAMOC regimen should be considered as an alternative to other chemotherapy regimens in the primary treatment of high-risk gestational trophoblastic disease, with comparable efficacy, similar short-term side-effects profile, and potentially fewer long-term complications.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage
  • Dactinomycin / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Hydroxyurea / administration & dosage
  • Methotrexate / administration & dosage
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy*
  • Neutropenia / chemically induced
  • Pregnancy
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Salvage Therapy
  • Stomatitis / chemically induced
  • Survival Rate
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vincristine / administration & dosage
  • Vomiting / chemically induced


  • Dactinomycin
  • Vincristine
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Hydroxyurea
  • Methotrexate