Beta Blockers Suppress Dextrose-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells

Am J Ther. Nov/Dec 2016;23(6):e1524-e1531. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0000000000000200.

Abstract

Beta blockers are known to have favorable effects on endothelial function partly because of their capacity to reduce oxidative stress. To determine whether beta blockers can also prevent dextrose-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in addition to their antioxidative effects, human coronary artery endothelial cells and hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cells were treated with 27.5 mM dextrose for 24 hours in the presence of carvedilol (a lipophilic beta blockers with alpha blocking activity), propranolol (a lipophilic nonselective beta blockers), and atenolol (a water-soluble selective beta blockers), and ER stress, oxidative, stress and cell death were measured. ER stress was measured using the placental alkaline phosphatase assay and Western blot analysis of glucose regulated protein 78, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), phospho-JNK, eukaryotic initiating factor 2α (eIF2α), and phospho-eIF2α and measurement of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA splicing using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Superoxide (SO) generation was measured using the superoxide-reactive probe 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride (MCLA) chemiluminescence. Cell viability was measured by propidium iodide staining method. The ER stress, SO production, and cell death induced by 27.5 mM dextrose were inhibited by all 3 beta blockers tested. The antioxidative and ER stress reducing effects of beta blockers were also observed in HepG2 cells. The salutary effects of beta blockers on endothelial cells in reducing both ER stress and oxidative stress may contribute to the cardioprotective effects of these agents.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / pharmacology*
  • Apoptosis / drug effects*
  • Atenolol / pharmacology
  • Carbazoles / pharmacology
  • Cardiotonic Agents / pharmacology
  • Carvedilol
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Coronary Vessels / drug effects
  • Coronary Vessels / pathology
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress / drug effects*
  • Endothelial Cells / drug effects
  • Endothelial Cells / pathology
  • Glucose / toxicity
  • Hep G2 Cells
  • Humans
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Propanolamines / pharmacology
  • Propranolol / pharmacology
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Superoxides / metabolism

Substances

  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
  • Carbazoles
  • Cardiotonic Agents
  • Propanolamines
  • Carvedilol
  • Superoxides
  • Atenolol
  • Propranolol
  • Glucose