Anti-inflammatory Activity of Cinnamon (C. Zeylanicum and C. Cassia) Extracts - Identification of E-cinnamaldehyde and O-Methoxy Cinnamaldehyde as the Most Potent Bioactive Compounds

Food Funct. 2015 Mar;6(3):910-9. doi: 10.1039/c4fo00680a.

Abstract

Chronic inflammation is a contributing factor in many age-related diseases. In a previous study, we have shown that Sri Lankan cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) was one of the most potent anti-inflammatory foods out of 115 foods tested. However, knowledge about the exact nature of the anti-inflammatory compounds and their distribution in the two major cinnamon species used for human consumption is limited. The aim of this investigation was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of C. zeylanicum and C. cassia and elucidate their main phytochemical compounds. When extracts were tested in LPS and IFN-γ activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, most of the anti-inflammatory activity, measured by down-regulation of nitric oxide and TNF-α production, was observed in the organic extracts. The most abundant compounds in these extracts were E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde. The highest concentration of E-cinnamaldehyde was found in the DCM extract of C. zeylanicum or C. cassia (31 and 34 mg g(-1) of cinnamon, respectively). When these and other constituents were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 macrophages, the most potent compounds were E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde, which exhibited IC₅₀ values for NO with RAW 264.7 cells of 55 ± 9 μM (7.3 ± 1.2 μg mL(-1)) and 35 ± 9 μM (5.7 ± 1.5 μg mL(-1)), respectively; and IC₅₀ values for TNF-α of 63 ± 9 μM (8.3 ± 1.2 μg mL(-1)) and 78 ± 16 μM (12.6 ± 2.6 μg mL(-1)), respectively. If therapeutic concentrations can be achieved in target tissues, cinnamon and its components may be useful in the treatment of age-related inflammatory conditions.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Acrolein / analogs & derivatives*
  • Acrolein / analysis
  • Acrolein / chemistry
  • Acrolein / isolation & purification
  • Acrolein / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / analysis
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / chemistry
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / isolation & purification*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / metabolism
  • Cell Line
  • Cinnamomum aromaticum / chemistry*
  • Cinnamomum aromaticum / growth & development
  • Cinnamomum zeylanicum / chemistry*
  • Dietary Supplements* / analysis
  • Ethnopharmacology
  • Macrophage Activation
  • Macrophages / immunology
  • Macrophages / metabolism*
  • Medicine, Traditional
  • Mice
  • Molecular Structure
  • Nitric Oxide / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Plant Bark / chemistry
  • Plant Bark / growth & development
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / metabolism
  • Sri Lanka
  • Stereoisomerism
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

Substances

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Plant Extracts
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Nitric Oxide
  • 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde
  • Acrolein
  • cinnamic aldehyde