Background: Teratomas demonstrate a benign clinical behavior, however they may recur with malignant components or as teratoma, and in a small group of patients prognosis could be fatal. After the first Italian study, we collected cases of teratoma, alongside the protocol for malignant germ cell tumors.
Procedure: Patients with teratoma were collected from 2004 to 2014. Teratomas were classified according to the WHO classifications, as mature and immature. Patients with pathological aFP and/or bHCG, and those with a malignant germ cell component were not included.
Results: The study enrolled 219 patients (150 mature, 69 immature teratomas) with a median age at diagnosis of 42 months. The primary sites involved were: 118 gonadal and 101 extragonadal teratomas. Two females with ovarian teratoma had a positive family history. Complete and incomplete surgeries were performed in 85% and 9% of cases. Seventeen events occurred: six females had a second metachronous tumor (5 contralateral ovarian teratoma, 1 adrenal neuroblastoma) and 11 teratomas relapsed/progressed (3 mature, 8 immature teratomas). Two patients died, one of progressive immature teratoma and one of surgical complications. At a median follow up of 68 months, the event-free, relapse-free, and overall survival rates were 90.6%, 94.3%, 98.6%, respectively.
Conclusions: Teratomas show a good prognosis, especially the mature ones: surgery and follow-up remain the standard approach. Incomplete surgery in immature teratoma is the group at greatest risk of relapse. Bilateral ovarian tumors are a possibility, and the rare family predisposition to ovarian mature teratoma warrants further analyses.
Keywords: childhood; germ cell tumors; immature teratoma; mature teratoma.
© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.