Prevalence and risk factors associated with bovine genital campylobacteriosis and bovine trichomonosis in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

Trop Anim Health Prod. 2015 Mar;47(3):549-55. doi: 10.1007/s11250-015-0761-3. Epub 2015 Jan 30.


The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis and Tritrichomonas foetus infection in cows from dairy herds in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. In total, 383 samples of cervico-vaginal mucus were collected from cows on 21 herds in 19 districts. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples and submitted for polymerase chain reaction analysis. An investigative questionnaire was used to analyze the risk factors, using questions related to reproductive and hygiene/sanitation management. A prevalence of 1.8% (0.8-3.9%; confidence interval (CI) 95%) and 33.4% (28.7-38.4%; CI 95%) was found for C. fetus subsp. venerealis and T. foetus, respectively. In terms of the number of foci, 28.6% of the herds contained at least one animal that was positive for C. fetus subsp. venerealis and 90.5% for T. foetus. The present study identified herds larger than 100 animals as a risk factor for bovine genital campylobacteriosis (OR = 7.2; CI 1.3-38.4%; p = 0.020) and the use of natural breeding as a risk factor for bovine trichomonosis (OR = 2.4; CI 1.1-5.9%; p = 0.041). In conclusion, C. fetus subsp. venerealis and T. foetus infections occurred in the region studied and high numbers of foci were found. Thus, prophylaxis and control measures, such as diagnosis, separation, and sexual rest for infected females, are suggested. An artificial insemination program with early rigorous sanitary care should be implemented on the properties in order to avoid the spread of agents in the herds.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Abortion, Veterinary / epidemiology
  • Animal Husbandry
  • Animals
  • Brazil / epidemiology
  • Campylobacter Infections / epidemiology
  • Campylobacter Infections / veterinary*
  • Campylobacter fetus / genetics
  • Campylobacter fetus / isolation & purification
  • Cattle
  • Cattle Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cervix Uteri / microbiology
  • Cervix Uteri / parasitology
  • DNA, Bacterial / analysis
  • DNA, Protozoan / analysis
  • Dairying
  • Female
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / veterinary
  • Prevalence
  • Protozoan Infections / epidemiology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tritrichomonas foetus / genetics
  • Tritrichomonas foetus / isolation & purification
  • Vagina / microbiology
  • Vagina / parasitology


  • DNA, Bacterial
  • DNA, Protozoan