Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Meta-Analysis
, 53 (1), 25-44

Does Stereotype Threat Influence Performance of Girls in Stereotyped Domains? A Meta-Analysis

Affiliations
Meta-Analysis

Does Stereotype Threat Influence Performance of Girls in Stereotyped Domains? A Meta-Analysis

Paulette C Flore et al. J Sch Psychol.

Abstract

Although the effect of stereotype threat concerning women and mathematics has been subject to various systematic reviews, none of them have been performed on the sub-population of children and adolescents. In this meta-analysis we estimated the effects of stereotype threat on performance of girls on math, science and spatial skills (MSSS) tests. Moreover, we studied publication bias and four moderators: test difficulty, presence of boys, gender equality within countries, and the type of control group that was used in the studies. We selected study samples when the study included girls, samples had a mean age below 18years, the design was (quasi-)experimental, the stereotype threat manipulation was administered between-subjects, and the dependent variable was a MSSS test related to a gender stereotype favoring boys. To analyze the 47 effect sizes, we used random effects and mixed effects models. The estimated mean effect size equaled -0.22 and significantly differed from 0. None of the moderator variables was significant; however, there were several signs for the presence of publication bias. We conclude that publication bias might seriously distort the literature on the effects of stereotype threat among schoolgirls. We propose a large replication study to provide a less biased effect size estimate.

Keywords: Gender gap; Math/science test performance; Meta-analysis; Publication bias; Stereotype threat; Test anxiety.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 9 PubMed Central articles

See all "Cited by" articles

Publication types

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback