In vitro inhibitory potential of Cynara scolymus, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, and Peumus boldus on key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome

Phytomedicine. 2015 Jan 15;22(1):138-44. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2014.11.015. Epub 2014 Nov 29.


Boldocynara®, a proprietary dietary supplement product consisting of the plants Cynara scolymus, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, and Peumus boldus, used to promote functions of the liver and the gallbladder. It was the aim of the present study to look from a different perspective at the product by investigating the in vitro potential of Boldocynara® as a combination product and its individual extracts on key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome. Peumus boldus extract exhibited pronounced inhibitory activities on α-glucosidase (80% inhibition at 100 µg/ml, IC50: 17.56 µg/ml). Silybum marianum had moderate pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitory activities (30% at 100 µg/ml) whereas Cynara scolymus showed moderate ACE inhibitory activity (31% at 100 µg/ml). The combination had moderate to weak effects on the tested enzymes. In conclusion, our results indicate some moderate potential of the dietary supplement Boldocynara® and its single ingredients for the prevention of metabolic disorders.

Keywords: Angiotensin I-converting enzyme; Herbal extract; Metabolic syndrome; Pancreatic lipase; Xanthine oxidase; α-Glucosidase.

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / chemistry
  • Cynara scolymus / chemistry
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / chemistry*
  • Flavonoids / chemistry
  • Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors / chemistry
  • Lipase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Metabolic Syndrome / enzymology*
  • Peumus / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry*
  • Silybum marianum / chemistry
  • Taraxacum / chemistry
  • Xanthine Oxidase / antagonists & inhibitors


  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Flavonoids
  • Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors
  • Plant Extracts
  • Xanthine Oxidase
  • Lipase