Background: Selective kappa opioid receptor antagonism is a promising experimental strategy for the treatment of depression. The kappa opioid receptor antagonist, LY2456302, exhibits ~30-fold higher affinity for kappa opioid receptors over mu opioid receptors, which is the next closest identified pharmacology.
Methods: Here, we determined kappa opioid receptor pharmacological selectivity of LY2456302 by assessing mu opioid receptor antagonism using translational pupillometry in rats and humans.
Results: In rats, morphine-induced mydriasis was completely blocked by the nonselective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (3mg/kg, which produced 90% mu opioid receptor occupancy), while 100 and 300 mg/kg LY2456302 (which produced 56% and 87% mu opioid receptor occupancy, respectively) only partially blocked morphine-induced mydriasis. In humans, fentanyl-induced miosis was completely blocked by 50mg naltrexone, and LY2456302 dose-dependently blocked miosis at 25 and 60 mg (minimal-to-no blockade at 4-10mg).
Conclusions: We demonstrate, for the first time, the use of translational pupillometry in the context of receptor occupancy to identify a clinical dose of LY2456302 achieving maximal kappa opioid receptor occupancy without evidence of significant mu receptor antagonism.
Keywords: LY2456302; dynorphin; kappa opioid receptor; pupillometry; translational biomarker.
© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.