Normalisation of urinary biomarkers to creatinine for clinical practice and research--when and why

Singapore Med J. 2015 Jan;56(1):7-10. doi: 10.11622/smedj.2015003.


Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are major health problems. Urinary biomarkers have both diagnostic and prognostic utility in AKI and CKD. However, how biomarker excretion rates should be reported, especially whether they should be normalised to urinary creatinine concentration (uCr), is controversial. Some studies suggest that normalisation to uCr may be inappropriate at times, as urinary creatinine excretion rate may vary greatly, depending on the situation. Notably, recent studies suggest that while normalisation of values to UCr may be valid for the evaluation of CKD and prediction of AKI sequelae and occurrences, it could be inappropriate for the diagnosis of AKI, or in the presence of certain acute kidney disease states.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / urine*
  • Biomarkers / urine*
  • Creatinine / urine*
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Humans
  • Kidney / physiopathology
  • Nephrology / methods
  • Nephrology / standards*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / urine
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Urinalysis / standards*


  • Biomarkers
  • Creatinine