The relevance of "non-criteria" clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome: 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies Technical Task Force Report on Antiphospholipid Syndrome Clinical Features

Autoimmun Rev. 2015 May;14(5):401-14. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2015.01.002. Epub 2015 Jan 29.


The purpose of this task force was to critically analyze nine non-criteria manifestations of APS to support their inclusion as APS classification criteria. The Task Force Members selected the non-criteria clinical manifestations according to their clinical relevance, that is, the patient-important outcome from clinician perspective. They included superficial vein thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, renal microangiopathy, heart valve disease, livedo reticularis, migraine, chorea, seizures and myelitis, which were reviewed by this International Task Force collaboration, in addition to the seronegative APS (SN-APS). GRADE system was used to evaluate the quality of evidence of medical literature of each selected item. This critical appraisal exercise aimed to support the debate regarding the clinical picture of APS. We found that the overall GRADE analysis was very low for migraine and seizures, low for superficial venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, chorea, longitudinal myelitis and the so-called seronegative APS and moderate for APS nephropathy, heart valve lesions and livedo reticularis. The next step can be a critical redefinition of an APS gold standard, for instance derived from the APS ACTION registry that will include not only current APS patients but also those with antiphospholipid antibodies not meeting current classification criteria.

Keywords: Accuracy; Antiphospholipid Syndrome; Clinical features; GRADE system; Non-criteria manifestations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Antiphospholipid / immunology*
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome / immunology*
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome / therapy
  • Chorea / immunology
  • Humans
  • Myelitis / immunology
  • Thrombocytopenia / immunology
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Antibodies, Antiphospholipid