CTLA-4 and PD-1 Pathway Blockade: Combinations in the Clinic

Front Oncol. 2015 Jan 15;4:385. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2014.00385. eCollection 2014.


Checkpoint blocking antibodies targeting regulatory molecules on T cells such as CTLA-4 and PD-1 have reinvigorated the field of cancer immunotherapy. These agents have demonstrated clinical activity across a variety of tumor types. Now that safety and clinical activity has been demonstrated in the monotherapy setting, the field is moving in the direction of testing novel combinations.

Keywords: CLTA-4; PD-1; immunotherapy; ipilimumab; nivolumab.

Publication types

  • Review