Anogenital distance and reproductive parameters in young men

Andrologia. 2016 Feb;48(1):3-10. doi: 10.1111/and.12403. Epub 2015 Feb 3.


The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between anogenital distance (AGD) measures and semen quality and serum reproductive hormone levels in Caucasian young men from southern Spain. Two variants of AGD [from the anus to the posterior base of the scrotum (AGD(AS)) and to the cephalad insertion of the penis (AGD(AP))] were assessed in 215 university students. Semen parameters (semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm counts, motility and morphology) and serum reproductive hormones (follicle stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, inhibin B, testosterone, calculated free testosterone, oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin) were also determined. Associations between AGD measures and the semen quality and reproductive hormone levels were tested using multiple regression analyses. Overall, median sperm concentration was 44.0 × 10(6) ml(-1) (5th-95th percentiles: 8.9-129 × 10(6 ) ml(-1)), median total sperm count was 121 × 10(6) (18.0-400 × 10(6)), and mean (SD) testosterone level was 21.7 nmol/l (6.9). Mean (SD) AGD(AS) and AGD(AP) measures were 48.3 mm (11.6) and 128 mm (12.0) respectively. In the multivariable analysis, AGD measures were not associated with any semen parameters or any of the reproductive hormone levels, which is in contrast to results of studies of US young men or infertile men. Further research is warranted to confirm these findings.

Keywords: Androgens; anogenital distance; semen parameters; serum reproductive hormones.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Anal Canal / anatomy & histology
  • Estradiol / blood*
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood
  • Gonadotropins, Pituitary / blood*
  • Humans
  • Infertility, Male / blood*
  • Inhibins / blood*
  • Luteinizing Hormone / blood
  • Male
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Penis / anatomy & histology
  • Perineum / anatomy & histology*
  • Regression Analysis
  • Scrotum / anatomy & histology
  • Semen Analysis*
  • Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin / metabolism*
  • Spain
  • Sperm Count
  • Sperm Motility
  • Testosterone / blood*
  • Young Adult


  • Gonadotropins, Pituitary
  • Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin
  • inhibin B
  • Testosterone
  • Estradiol
  • Inhibins
  • Luteinizing Hormone
  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone