Periodontal soft tissue non-root coverage procedures: a consensus report from the AAP Regeneration Workshop

J Periodontol. 2015 Feb;86(2 Suppl):S73-6. doi: 10.1902/jop.2015.140377.


Background: Soft tissue grafting for the purposes of increasing the width of keratinized tissue (KT) is an important aspect of periodontal treatment. A systematic review was analyzed, focusing on non-root coverage tissue grafts. The references were updated to reflect the current literature.

Methods: To formulate the consensus report, group members submitted any new literature related to the topic that met criteria fitting the systematic review, and this information was reviewed for inclusion in this report. A consensus report was developed to summarize the findings from the systematic review and to guide clinicians in their treatment decision-making process.

Results: Forty-six articles met the criteria for inclusion in the final analysis, and two articles were added that were used to formulate this consensus report. A list of eight clinically relevant questions was posed, and consensus statements were developed.

Conclusions: The evidence suggests that a minimum amount of KT is not needed to prevent attachment loss (AL) when optimal plaque control is present. However, if plaque control is suboptimal, a minimum of 2 mm of KT is needed. The standard procedure to predictably gain KT is the autogenous gingival graft. There is limited evidence for alternative treatment options. However, additional research may offer promising results in certain clinical scenarios.

Clinical recommendations: Before patient treatment, the clinician should evaluate etiology, including the role of inflammation and various types of trauma that contribute to AL. The best outcome procedure (autograft) and alternative options should be reviewed with the patient during appropriate informed consent. Proper assessment of the outcome should be included during supportive periodontal care.

Keywords: Gingival recession; periodontitis; regeneration; surgery, plastic; tissue engineering; tissue transplantation.

Publication types

  • Consensus Development Conference
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Autografts / transplantation
  • Dental Plaque / prevention & control
  • Gingiva / anatomy & histology
  • Gingiva / transplantation
  • Gingival Diseases / surgery
  • Gingivoplasty / methods*
  • Guided Tissue Regeneration, Periodontal / methods*
  • Humans
  • Keratins
  • Patient Satisfaction


  • Keratins