The research and development of delamanid was carried out by Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development and Commercialization (Osaka, Tokyo, Japan). It belongs to the group of nitroimidazoles. It inhibits the synthesis of mycolic acids, crucial component of the cell wall of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. It is insoluble in water and its activity was proven in several in vitro and in vivo studies. Its market approval was obtained in April 2014 in Europe. Its bactericidal activity was demonstrated in individuals with drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR- and XDR-TB). The safety and tolerability profile was good; the notified increased QT interval was not clinically relevant. It was approved for adults but ongoing clinical trials and clinical experiences have been proving its efficacy in the pediatric population.
Keywords: MDR-TB prevention; delamanid; mycolic acid inhibition; nitro-dihydro-imidazooxazole; tuberculosis.