Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive brain tumors. We have previously found up-regulation of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) in glioblastoma cells treated with the anticancer agent fenofibrate. Sequence analysis of GDF15 revealed the presence of a microRNA, miR-3189, in the single intron. We then asked whether miR-3189 was expressed in clinical samples and whether it was functional in glioblastoma cells. We found that expression of miR-3189-3p was down-regulated in astrocytoma and glioblastoma clinical samples compared with control brain tissue. In vitro, the functionality of miR-3189-3p was tested by RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation, and miR-3189-3p coimmunoprecipitated with Argonaute 2 together with two of its major predicted gene targets, the SF3B2 splicing factor and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor p63RhoGEF. Overexpression of miR-3189-3p resulted in a significant inhibition of cell proliferation and migration through direct targeting of SF3B2 and p63RhoGEF, respectively. Interestingly, miR-3189-3p levels were increased by treatment of glioblastoma cells with fenofibrate, a lipid-lowering drug with multiple anticancer activities. The attenuated expression of miR-3189-3p in clinical samples paralleled the elevated expression of SF3B2, which could contribute to the activation of SF3B2 growth-promoting pathways in these tumors. Finally, miR-3189-3p-mediated inhibition of tumor growth in vivo further supported the function of this microRNA as a tumor suppressor.
Keywords: Cell Migration; Cell Proliferation; Glioblastoma; MicroRNA (miRNA); Tumor Suppressor Gene.
© 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.