Background & aims: The incidence of metabolic syndrome-related hepatocellular carcinoma (MS-HCC) is increasing worldwide. High resection risks are anticipated because of underlying steatohepatitis, but long-term results are unknown. To clarify the outcomes following liver resection in patients with MS-HCC and to compare the outcomes of MS-HCC to HCV-related HCC (HCV-HCC).
Methods: All the consecutive patients undergoing liver resection for HCC in six high-volume HPB units between 2000 and 2012 were retrospectively considered. The patients with MS-HCC were identified and matched one-to-one with HCV-HCC patients without metabolic syndrome. Matching was based on age, cirrhosis, Child-Pugh class, portal hypertension, HCC number and diameter and liver resection extension.
Results: Among 1563 patients undergoing liver resection for HCC in the study period, 96 (6.1%) had MS-HCC. They were matched with 96 HCV-HCC patients. All patients were Child-Pugh class A, 22.9% had cirrhosis. Forty-one patients per group (42.7%) required major hepatectomy. The MS-HCC group had a higher prevalence of steatohepatitis (25.0% vs. 9.4%, p=0.004). Operative mortality was 2.1% (1 MS-HCC, 3 HCV-HCC, p=0.621). Morbidity and liver failure rates were similar between the two groups. In the multivariate analysis, cirrhosis, major hepatectomy, and MELD >8, but not steatohepatitis, impacted severe morbidity and liver failure rates. The MS-HCC group had better 5-year overall survival (65.6% vs. 61.4%, p=0.031) and recurrence-free survival (37.0% vs. 27.5%, p=0.077). Independent negative prognostic factors were HCV-HCC, multiple HCC, microvascular invasion, and satellite nodules.
Conclusions: Liver resection is safe for MS-HCC, as for HCV-HCC. Cirrhosis, but not steatohepatitis, affects short-term outcomes. MS-HCC is associated with excellent long-term outcomes, better than HCV-HCC.
Keywords: Cirrhosis; HCV-related HCC; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Liver failure; Liver surgery; Metabolic syndrome; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; Obesity; Steatosis; Survival.
Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.