Repeat Cytoreductive Surgery and HIPEC for Peritoneal Surface Malignancy and Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

World J Surg. 2015 Jun;39(6):1578-83. doi: 10.1007/s00268-015-2986-8.


Background: Peritoneal-based malignancy (PBM), especially peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastrointestinal malignancies traditionally carries a poor prognosis. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intra-peritoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have been shown to attain long median survival of 34-92 months and 5 year survival of 29-59% in patients with favorable histopathological subtypes. Recurrence after CRS and HIPEC poses a management dilemma. This paper evaluates our institution's experience with repeat CRS and HIPEC, its associated morbidity and outcomes.

Methods: One-hundred and thirty underwent CRS and HIPEC for PBM from April 2001 to June 2013. 49 had peritoneal recurrences, of which 24 had peritoneal only recurrence. 7 out of the 24 underwent a second CRS and HIPEC.

Results: Five females and two males with median age of 51 (37-63), underwent a second CRS and HIPEC. The primary malignancies were: 1 peritoneal mesothelioma, 3 appendiceal, 2 ovarian, and 1 colorectal cancers. Median peritoneal cancer indices for the initial and second CRS were 19 and 12, respectively. Completeness of cytoreduction score of 0 was achieved for all patients. Median hospitalization after second CRS and HIPEC was 12 days (7-60). 1 out of 7 (14%) experienced grade 3 or 4 post-operative complications. There was no 30-day or inpatient mortality. Median follow-up was 13 months (1-97). Median disease-free interval between the first CRS and HIPEC to peritoneal recurrence was 20 months (14-87). Median disease-free survival of 6 months (1-97) was achieved after the second CRS and HIPEC. Six patients remained alive without disease and one passed away with disease. Two had recurrences at 12 and 71 months after second CRS and HIPEC, 1 died and the other, still alive, went on to have a third CRS.

Conclusion: Repeat CRS and HIPEC can achieve prolonged survival in selected patients with peritoneal-based malignancies, and can be performed with acceptable morbidity and mortality.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Carcinoma / secondary
  • Carcinoma / therapy*
  • Chemotherapy, Adjuvant
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures*
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperthermia, Induced*
  • Infusions, Parenteral
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy*
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Reoperation
  • Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery
  • Survival Rate


  • Antineoplastic Agents