Background: Double-hit lymphoma is characterized by the presence of concurrent MYC (myelocytomatosis oncogene) and BCL2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) gene rearrangements. Prognosis is poor with standard chemoimmunotherapy. Since 2003, the British Columbia Cancer Agency has used CODOX-M/IVAC+R (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, methotrexate, cytarabine, ifosfamide, and etoposide, combined with rituximab) followed by consolidative hematopoietic cell transplantation as definitive treatment for double-hit lymphoma.
Patients and methods: A retrospective review of the survival outcomes of patients with double-hit lymphoma treated at our institution was conducted. Thirty-two patients diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma with concurrent MYC and BCL2 translocations from 2003 to 2013 were identified. Cases with MYC or BCL2 amplification and those with overexpression in immunohistochemistry analysis were excluded.
Results: Median age at diagnosis was 53.0 years (range, 35.5-70.9 years), 23 (72%) were male, and 30 (94%) had stage III to IV disease. CODOX-M/IVAC+R was administered in 25 (78%) patients and 20 (80%) achieved a partial remission or better, of which 9 (36%) had a complete remission. Nineteen of the 32 (59%) patients underwent upfront hematopoietic cell transplantation. At a median follow-up of living patients of 26.4 months, 14 (44%) were alive in remission, 15 (47%) died, and 3 (9%) were alive in relapse. The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of all patients were 41% and 53%, respectively. The sixteen patients treated with CODOX-M/IVAC+R followed by hematopoietic cell transplantation had a 2-year PFS of 60% and 2-year OS of 82%.
Conclusion: Patients with double-hit lymphoma treated with CODOX-M/IVAC+R followed by hematopoietic cell transplantation can achieve durable remissions, although disease progression before transplantation remains a significant problem.
Keywords: Aggressive B-cell lymphoma; BCLU; Double-hit lymphoma; Magrath protocol; allotransplant.
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