Hemodynamic effects of left pulmonary artery stenosis after superior cavopulmonary connection: a patient-specific multiscale modeling study

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2015 Mar;149(3):689-96.e1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2014.12.040. Epub 2014 Dec 20.


Objective: Currently, no quantitative guidelines have been established for treatment of left pulmonary artery (LPA) stenosis. This study aims to quantify the effects of LPA stenosis on postoperative hemodynamics for single-ventricle patients undergoing stage II superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC) surgery, using a multiscale computational approach.

Methods: Image data from 6 patients were segmented to produce 3-dimensional models of the pulmonary arteries before stage II surgery. Pressure and flow measurements were used to tune a 0-dimensional model of the entire circulation. Postoperative geometries were generated through stage II virtual surgery; varying degrees of LPA stenosis were applied using mesh morphing and hemodynamics assessed through coupled 0-3-dimensional simulations. To relate metrics of stenosis to clinical classifications, pediatric cardiologists and surgeons ranked the degrees of stenosis in the models. The effects of LPA stenosis were assessed based on left-to-right pulmonary artery flow split ratios, mean pressure drop across the stenosis, cardiac pressure-volume loops, and other clinically relevant parameters.

Results: Stenosis of >65% of the vessel diameter was required to produce a right pulmonary artery:LPA flow split <30%, and/or a mean pressure drop of >3.0 mm Hg, defined as clinically significant changes.

Conclusions: The effects of <65% stenosis on SCPC hemodynamics and physiology were minor and may not justify the increased complexity of adding LPA arterioplasty to the SCPC operation. However, in the longer term, pulmonary augmentation may affect outcomes of the Fontan completion surgery, as pulmonary artery distortion is a risk factor that may influence stage III physiology.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Arterial Occlusive Diseases / diagnosis
  • Arterial Occlusive Diseases / etiology*
  • Arterial Occlusive Diseases / physiopathology
  • Arterial Occlusive Diseases / surgery
  • Arterial Pressure
  • Blood Flow Velocity
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Computer Simulation
  • Constriction, Pathologic
  • Europe
  • Fontan Procedure / adverse effects
  • Heart Bypass, Right / adverse effects*
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / diagnosis
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / physiopathology
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / surgery*
  • Hemodynamics*
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Models, Anatomic
  • Models, Cardiovascular*
  • Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted
  • Patient Selection
  • Prospective Studies
  • Pulmonary Artery / physiopathology
  • Pulmonary Artery / surgery*
  • Pulmonary Circulation*
  • Regional Blood Flow
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States
  • Vascular Remodeling