Background: Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is implicated as an epithelium-derived danger signal promoting Th2-dependent responses in asthma. We hypothesized that IL-33 might also have direct effects on mast cell-driven allergic airway obstruction.
Methods: The effects of IL-33 on allergic responses in the airways of sensitized mice were assessed both in vivo and ex vivo, as well as on cultured mast cells in vitro.
Results: In vivo, the allergen-induced increase in resistance in the conducting airways was enhanced in mice pretreated with IL-33. Also, in the isolated airways, the allergen-induced contractions were increased in preparations from animals subjected to intranasal IL-33 pretreatment. These effects in vivo and ex vivo were blocked by the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin and absent in mice without mast cells. Likewise, the IL-33-induced enhancement of the allergen response was absent in isolated airways from mice lacking the IL-33 receptor. Moreover, exposure to IL-33 increased secretion of serotonin from allergen-challenged isolated airways. In cultured mast cells, IL-33 enhanced the expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1, serotonin synthesis, and storage, as well as the secretion of serotonin following IgE receptor cross-linking.
Conclusion: These results demonstrate that IL-33 exacerbates allergic bronchoconstriction by increasing synthesis, storage, and secretion of serotonin from the mast cell. This mechanism has implications for the development of airway obstruction in asthma.
Keywords: asthma; early allergic reaction; exacerbations; interleukin-33; serotonin.
© 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.