Sarcodon in the Neotropics I: new species from Guyana, Puerto Rico and Belize

Mycologia. 2015 May-Jun;107(3):591-606. doi: 10.3852/14-185. Epub 2015 Feb 6.


Four species of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) genus Sarcodon (Bankeraceae, Thelephorales, Basidiomycota) are described as new to science. Sarcodon pakaraimensis sp. nov. is described from forests dominated by the ECM trees Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea (Dipterocarpaceae) and Dicymbe jenmanii (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae) in the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana. Sarcodon portoricensis sp. nov. is described from lower montane wet forest within the El Yunque National Forest of Puerto Rico. Sarcodon quercophilus sp. nov. and Sarcodon umbilicatus sp. nov. are described from Quercus (Fagaceae) cloud forests within the Maya Mountains of Belize. The discovery of these species is significant given that the majority of the approximately 87 described Sarcodon species are north temperate or boreal in distribution and frequently associate with coniferous host plants; these constitute the most recent records for Sarcodon from the greater Neotropics. Each of the new species is morphologically consistent with accepted diagnostic characters for Sarcodon: pileate-stipitate stature, a dentate hymenophore, determinate basidiomatal development, fleshy, non-zonate context and brown, tuberculate basidiospores. DNA (ITS) sequence analysis corroborated the generic placement of S. pakaraimensis, S. portoricensis, S. quercophilus and S. umbilicatus and, along with morphological differences, supported their recognition as distinct species. Macromorphological, micromorphological, habitat and DNA sequence data from the nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) are provided for each of the new species. A key to Neotropical Sarcodon species and similar extralimital taxa is provided.

Keywords: Bankeraceae; Caribbean; Central America; Guiana Shield; Thelephorales; ectomycorrhizal fungi; tooth fungi.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Basidiomycota / classification
  • Basidiomycota / genetics
  • Basidiomycota / growth & development
  • Basidiomycota / isolation & purification*
  • Belize
  • DNA, Fungal / genetics
  • DNA, Ribosomal / genetics
  • Guyana
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mycorrhizae / classification
  • Mycorrhizae / genetics
  • Mycorrhizae / growth & development
  • Mycorrhizae / isolation & purification*
  • Phylogeny
  • Puerto Rico
  • Spores, Fungal / classification
  • Spores, Fungal / genetics
  • Spores, Fungal / growth & development
  • Spores, Fungal / isolation & purification
  • Trees / microbiology


  • DNA, Fungal
  • DNA, Ribosomal