Betanin attenuates oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction in kidney of paraquat-treated rat

Food Chem Toxicol. 2015 Apr:78:141-6. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2015.01.018. Epub 2015 Feb 7.


The effects of natural pigment betanin on oxidative stress and inflammation in kidney of paraquat-treated rat were investigated. Paraquat was injected intraperitoneally into rats to induce renal damage. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, a paraquat group, and two paraquat groups that were treated with betanin at 25 and 100 mg/kg/d three days before and two days after paraquat administration. Treatment with betanin alleviated the paraquat-incurred acute kidney injury, evidenced by histological improvement, reduced serum and urine markers for kidney injury. Betanin antagonized the paraquat-induced inflammation, indicated by reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase, blunted activation of nuclear factor kappa B, and diminished lysosomal protease activities. Betanin also decreased oxidative stress elicited by paraquat. In conclusion, betanin may have a protective effect against paraquat-induced acute kidney damage. The mechanisms of the protection appear to be the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation.

Keywords: COX-2; Herbicide; Lysosomal proteases; Natural pigment; Nuclear factor-κB; iNOS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Betacyanins / pharmacology*
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Biomarkers / urine
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 / genetics
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Inflammation / chemically induced
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Kidney / drug effects*
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Male
  • NF-kappa B / genetics
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / genetics
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Paraquat / toxicity*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Betacyanins
  • Biomarkers
  • NF-kappa B
  • betanin
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Nos2 protein, rat
  • Ptgs2 protein, mouse
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Paraquat