Corinthian currants are a rich source of phenolic compounds, which are known to exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The hypothesis tested is whether dietary supplementation with currants attenuates atherosclerosis and affects plasma phenolics during prolonged hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. Thirty New Zealand White rabbits were fed one of four diets (normal and supplemented with 10% currants, with 0.5% cholesterol, and with 0.5% cholesterol plus 10% currants) for eight weeks. Plasma lipids, glucose and hepatic enzymes were determined. Individual phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in plasma during the dietary intervention. At the end of the study, histological examinations of aorta and liver were performed. The high-cholesterol diet resulted in hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress, increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and induced aortic and hepatic lesion formation. Corinthian currant supplementation attenuated atherosclerotic lesions, maintained AST within the normal range and reduced oxidative stress without affecting glucose concentrations. The p-OH-benzoic and p-OH-phenylacetic acids predominated at high concentrations in plasma and remained almost constant during the study in the group that received the normal rabbit chow and the groups given food with added cholesterol either alone or supplemented with currants. Currant supplementation to the normal diet resulted in the reduced absorption of phenolic compounds, as revealed by the measurement of their plasma metabolites, suggesting a regulatory mechanism at the gut level under normal conditions.