Cooperative binding of steroid hormone receptors contributes to transcriptional synergism at target enhancer elements

Cell. 1989 May 5;57(3):443-8. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(89)90919-7.


We demonstrated previously that two molecules of steroid hormone receptor bound efficiently to a single hormone response element (GRE/PRE) of the tyrosine aminotransferase gene (Tsai et al., 1988). Here, we show that two tandemly linked GRE/PREs conferred progesterone inducibility synergistically to a heterologous TK-CAT fusion gene. Binding studies demonstrated that occupation of one GRE/PRE site by a progesterone receptor dimer increased the binding affinity of receptors for the second GRE/PRE site 100-fold. Thus, the observed synergistic induction of TK-CAT may result from cooperative binding of receptor dimers to the two GRE/PRE sites.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Cell Line
  • Chickens
  • DNA / analysis
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic*
  • Glucocorticoids / metabolism*
  • Plasmids
  • Progesterone / metabolism*
  • Progesterone / pharmacology
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / drug effects
  • Receptors, Progesterone / genetics
  • Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism*
  • Transcription, Genetic*
  • Transfection
  • Tyrosine Transaminase / genetics


  • Glucocorticoids
  • Receptors, Progesterone
  • Progesterone
  • DNA
  • Tyrosine Transaminase