The concepts of quantum brain, quantum mind and quantum consciousness have been increasingly gaining currency in recent years, both in scientific papers and in the popular press. In fact, the concept of the quantum brain is a general framework. Included in it are basically four main sub-headings. These are often incorrectly used interchangeably. The first of these and the one which started the quantum mind/consciousness debate was the place of consciousness in the problem of measurement in quantum mechanics. Debate on the problem of quantum measurement and about the place of the conscious observer has lasted almost a century. One solution to this problem is that the participation of a conscious observer in the experiment will radically change our understanding of the universe and our relationship with the outside world. The second topic is that of quantum biology. This topic has become a popular field of research, especially in the last decade. It concerns whether or not the rules of quantum physics operate in biological structures. It has been shown in the latest research on photosynthesis, the sense of smell and magnetic direction finding in animals that the laws of quantum physics may operate in warm-wet-noisy biological structures. The third sub-heading is quantum neurobiology. This topic has not yet gained wide acceptance and is still in its early stages. Its primary purpose is directed to understand whether the laws of quantum physics are effective in the biology of the nervous system or not. A further step in brain neurobiology, toward the understanding of consciousness formation, is the research of quantum laws effects upon neural network functions. The fourth and final topic is quantum psychopathology. This topic takes its basis and its support from quantum neurobiology. It comes from the idea that if quantum physics is involved in the normal working of the brain, diseased conditions of the brain such as depression, anxiety, dementia, schizophrenia and hallucinations can be explained by quantum physical pathology. In this article, these topics will be reviewed in a general framework, and for the first time a general classification will be made for the quantum brain theory.
Keywords: Consciousness; Measurement problem; Psychopathology; Quantum biology; Quantum neurobiology; Quantum physics.
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