Proteomics is a powerful approach used for investigating the complex molecular mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and progression. An important challenge in modern protein profiling approaches involves targeting of specific protein activities in order to identify altered molecular processes associated with disease pathophysiology. Adenosine-binding proteins represent an important subset of the proteome where aberrant expression or activity changes of these proteins have been implicated in numerous human diseases. Herein, we describe an affinity-based approach for the enrichment of adenosine-binding proteins from a complex cell proteome. A novel N6-biotinylated-8-azido-adenosine probe (AdoR probe) was synthesized, which contains a reactive group that forms a covalent bond with the target proteins, as well as a biotin tag for affinity enrichment using avidin chromatography. Probe specificity was confirmed with protein standards prior to further evaluation in a complex protein mixture consisting of a lysate derived from mouse neuroblastoma N18TG2 cells. Protein identification and relative quantitation using mass spectrometry allowed for the identification of small variations in abundance of nucleoside- and nucleotide-binding proteins in these samples where a significant enrichment of AdoR-binding proteins in the labeled proteome from the neuroblastoma cells was observed. The results from this study demonstrate the utility of this method to enrich for nucleoside- and nucleotide-binding proteins in a complex protein mixture, pointing towards a unique set of proteins that can be examined in the context of further understanding mechanisms of disease, or fundamental biological processes in general.