Amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are the main neuropathological hallmarks in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. However, it has become increasingly apparent that neuroinflammation plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of AD. This review summarizes the current status of neuroinflammation research related to AD, focusing on the connections between neuroinflammation and some inflammation factors in AD. Among these connections, we discuss the dysfunctional blood-brain barrier and alterations in the functional responses of microglia and astrocytes in this process. In addition, we summarize and discuss the role of intracellular signaling pathways involved in inflammatory responses in astrocytes and microglia, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, nuclear factor-kappa B cascade, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma transcription factors. Finally, the dysregulation of the control and release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and classic AD pathology (amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) in AD is also reviewed.
Keywords: blood–brain barrier; glial cells; inflammation; inflammatory factors; intracellular signaling pathways.