One hundred twenty-two early-stage anal canal cancer patients (median age: 69 years) were treated with curative radiotherapy with (70 patients) or without (52 patients) concomitant chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 65 months (range: 4-238). At multivariate analysis, concomitant chemotherapy significantly improved local control (p = .007). Local control significantly influenced all considered endpoints, except the metastases free survival. The global rates of G3-G4 acute and late toxicity were 13.1% and 8.2%, respectively, and they were not increased by concomitant chemotherapy. Finally, concomitant chemotherapy is efficacious and safe in the treatment of T1-2N0 anal canal cancer patients and should be prospectively studied.
Keywords: Anal cancer; Early-stage anal cancer; Node negative; Radiochemotherapy; Radiotherapy.