Ensuring consistent reporting of clinical pharmacy services to enhance reproducibility in practice: an improved version of DEPICT

J Eval Clin Pract. 2015 Aug;21(4):584-90. doi: 10.1111/jep.12339. Epub 2015 Feb 12.


Rationale, aims and objectives: DEPICT (Descriptive Elements of Pharmacist Intervention Characterization Tool) was created in response to the frequently reported issue of poor intervention description across studies assessing the impact of clinical pharmacy activities. The aim of this study was to create an improved version of DEPICT (i.e. DEPICT 2) to better characterize clinical pharmacy services in order to ensure consistent reporting, therefore enhancing reproducibility of interventions in practice.

Method: A qualitative approach through a thematic content analysis was performed to identify components of pharmacist interventions described in 269 randomized controlled trials. A preliminary version of DEPICT 2 was applied independently by two authors to a random sample of 85 of the 269 RCTs and reliability determined by the prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) or the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The final version of DEPICT 2 was compared against DEPICT 1.

Results: The final version of DEPICT 2 comprised 146 items and 11 domains. The inter-rater agreement analysis showed that DEPICT presented good to optimal reproducibility, with a mean PABAK value of 0.87 (95% CI 0.85-0.89) and a mean ICC value of 0.88 (95% CI 0.62-1.14). The mean difference between items checked in the two versions (DEPICT 2 - DEPICT 1) was 10.58 (95% CI 9.55-11.61), meaning that approximately 11 more components were identified in the new version of DEPICT.

Conclusions: DEPICT 2 is a reliable tool to characterize components of clinical pharmacy services, which should be used to ensure consistent reporting of interventions to allow their reproducibility in practice.

Keywords: evidence-based practice; outcome and process assessment (health care); pharmaceutical services; pharmacists; reproducibility of results; validation studies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Early Medical Intervention / standards*
  • Evidence-Based Practice
  • Health Services Research
  • Humans
  • Pharmacy Service, Hospital / standards*
  • Program Development
  • Program Evaluation
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Research Report*