Development and characterization of different black raspberry confection matrices designed for delivery of phytochemicals

J Food Sci. 2015 Mar;80(3):E610-8. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.12808. Epub 2015 Feb 10.


Three forms of confections containing black raspberries (BRB) powder were developed to provide controlled release of phytochemicals for oral disease prevention. Our objective was to investigate the impact of varying confection matrices on the release rate of BRB phytochemicals. Confections were developed and prepared. Textural properties of confections were analyzed, compared and correlated with the release rate of phytochemicals from BRB confections with in vitro dissolution test. In the results, BRB content reached 22% in hard candy and pectin-based confections and 40% in starch-based confections, respectively. Pectin- and starch-based confections retained >93% of its original anthocyanins after processing while hard candy had 59%. Starch confections showed higher G' in rheological analysis and higher hardness but lower cohesiveness and springiness in textural profile analysis than pectin confections (P < 0.05). The confection types showed different microstructure with scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Corresponding to their physicochemical properties, confections showed fast (hard candy), intermediate (pectin confections), and slow (starch confections) release rates with a final releasing time of 90, 150, and 540 min in dissolution studies. Three confections were rated between neither like nor dislike to like slightly (n = 60). Pectin confections had the highest overall acceptance (like slightly) and 62% of subjects rated this type of confection as the most liked ones. These results indicate that delivery matrix could modulate the phytochemical release rate from BRB confection and also influence sensory preference.

Keywords: anthocyanins retention; confection matrix; modulated delivery of phytochemicals; physicochemical properties.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anthocyanins / administration & dosage
  • Anthocyanins / therapeutic use
  • Candy / analysis*
  • Consumer Behavior
  • Drug Delivery Systems*
  • Female
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Hardness
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mouth Diseases / prevention & control
  • Pectins* / chemistry
  • Phytochemicals / administration & dosage*
  • Phytochemicals / therapeutic use
  • Rubus / chemistry*
  • Starch* / chemistry
  • Taste


  • Anthocyanins
  • Phytochemicals
  • Pectins
  • Starch