A series of six clones containing the entire human pepsinogen C gene (PGC) was identified in a cosmid vector library by using cDNA and oligonucleotide probes. The 10.7-kb PGC gene includes nine exons and exhibits a high degree of sequence identity (60%) with the functionally related pepsinogen A genes. The predicted amino acid sequence was identical with the partial amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal sequences of purified pepsinogen C. An informative restriction fragment length polymorphism was detected with several restriction enzymes and involved an insertion or deletion of 100 bp of intron sequence located between exons 7 and 8. Evidence that there is only a single PGC gene in humans is presented. The PGC gene and the prolactin gene were regionally localized to 6p21.1-pter by analysis of mouse X human somatic cell hybrids.