Bloodstream infections: epidemiology and resistance

Clin Perinatol. 2015 Mar;42(1):1-16, vii. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2014.10.002. Epub 2014 Dec 12.


Bloodstream infections in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are associated with many adverse outcomes in infants, including increased length of stay and cost, poor neurodevelopmental outcomes, and death. Attention to the insertion and maintenance of central lines, along with careful review of when the catheters can be safely discontinued, can minimize central-line-associated bloodstream infections rates. Good antibiotic stewardship can further decrease the incidence of bloodstream infections, minimize the emergence of drug-resistant organisms or Candida as pathogens in the NICU, and safeguard the use of currently available antibiotics for future infants.

Keywords: Antibiotic stewardship; Central-line–associated bloodstream infection; Infection control; Multidrug resistance; NICU; Neonate.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use
  • Bacteremia / drug therapy
  • Bacteremia / epidemiology*
  • Bacteremia / microbiology
  • Candidemia / drug therapy
  • Candidemia / epidemiology*
  • Catheter-Related Infections / drug therapy
  • Catheter-Related Infections / epidemiology*
  • Catheter-Related Infections / microbiology
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial*
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / epidemiology*
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / microbiology
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature
  • Intensive Care Units, Neonatal
  • Staphylococcal Infections / epidemiology*
  • Staphylococcal Infections / microbiology


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Antifungal Agents