TORCH infections

Clin Perinatol. 2015 Mar;42(1):77-103, viii. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2014.11.001. Epub 2014 Dec 20.


TORCH infections classically comprise toxoplasmosis, Treponema pallidum, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus, hepatitis viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, and other infections, such as varicella, parvovirus B19, and enteroviruses. The epidemiology of these infections varies; in low-income and middle-income countries, TORCH infections are major contributors to prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal morbidity and mortality. Evidence of infection may be seen at birth, in infancy, or years later. For many of these pathogens, treatment or prevention strategies are available. Early recognition, including prenatal screening, is key. This article covers toxoplasmosis, parvovirus B19, syphilis, rubella, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus.

Keywords: HIV; Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; Parvovirus; Rubella; TORCH; Toxoplasmosis; Treponema pallidum.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antiprotozoal Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Erythema Infectiosum / diagnosis*
  • Erythema Infectiosum / drug therapy
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / congenital
  • HIV Infections / diagnosis*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • Hepatitis B / diagnosis*
  • Hepatitis B / drug therapy
  • Hepatitis C / diagnosis*
  • Hepatitis C / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / diagnosis*
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / drug therapy
  • Prenatal Diagnosis
  • Rubella Syndrome, Congenital / diagnosis*
  • Rubella Syndrome, Congenital / drug therapy
  • Syphilis, Congenital / diagnosis*
  • Syphilis, Congenital / drug therapy
  • Toxoplasmosis, Congenital / diagnosis*
  • Toxoplasmosis, Congenital / drug therapy


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Antiprotozoal Agents
  • Antiviral Agents

Supplementary concepts

  • Parvovirus antenatal infection