Guanfu base A, an antiarrhythmic alkaloid of Aconitum coreanum, Is a CYP2D6 inhibitor of human, monkey, and dog isoforms

Drug Metab Dispos. 2015 May;43(5):713-24. doi: 10.1124/dmd.114.060905. Epub 2015 Feb 13.


Guanfu base A (GFA) is a novel heterocyclic antiarrhythmic drug isolated from Aconitum coreanum (Lèvl.) rapaics and is currently in a phase IV clinical trial in China. However, no study has investigated the influence of GFA on cytochrome P450 (P450) drug metabolism. We characterized the potency and specificity of GFA CYP2D inhibition based on dextromethorphan O-demethylation, a CYP2D6 probe substrate of activity in human, mouse, rat, dog, and monkey liver microsomes. In addition, (+)-bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation was used as a CYP2D6 probe for the recombinant form (rCYP2D6), 2D1 (rCYP2D1), and 2D2 (rCYP2D2) activities. Results show that GFA is a potent noncompetitive inhibitor of CYP2D6, with inhibition constant Ki = 1.20 ± 0.33 μM in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and Ki = 0.37 ± 0.16 μM for the human recombinant form (rCYP2D6). GFA is also a potent competitive inhibitor of CYP2D in monkey (Ki = 0.38 ± 0.12 μM) and dog (Ki = 2.4 ± 1.3 μM) microsomes. However, GFA has no inhibitory activity on mouse or rat CYP2Ds. GFA did not exhibit any inhibition activity on human recombinant CYP1A2, 2A6, 2C8, 2C19, 3A4, or 3A5, but showed slight inhibition of 2B6 and 2E1. Preincubation of HLMs and rCYP2D6 resulted in the inactivation of the enzyme, which was attenuated by GFA or quinidine. Beagle dogs treated intravenously with dextromethorphan (2 mg/ml) after pretreatment with GFA injection showed reduced CYP2D metabolic activity, with the Cmax of dextrorphan being one-third that of the saline-treated group and area under the plasma concentration-time curve half that of the saline-treated group. This study suggests that GFA is a specific CYP2D6 inhibitor that might play a role in CYP2D6 medicated drug-drug interaction.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aconitum / chemistry*
  • Alkaloids / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / pharmacology*
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 / metabolism*
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Dextromethorphan / metabolism
  • Dextrorphan / pharmacology
  • Dogs
  • Drug Interactions
  • Female
  • Haplorhini
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 4 or More Rings / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Microsomes, Liver / drug effects
  • Microsomes, Liver / metabolism
  • Protein Isoforms / pharmacology*
  • Quinidine / pharmacology
  • Rats


  • Alkaloids
  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 Inhibitors
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 4 or More Rings
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Dextrorphan
  • Guan-fu base A
  • Dextromethorphan
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6
  • Quinidine