Retromer contributes to immunity-associated cell death in Arabidopsis

Plant Cell. 2015 Feb;27(2):463-79. doi: 10.1105/tpc.114.132043. Epub 2015 Feb 13.


Membrane trafficking is required during plant immune responses, but its contribution to the hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death (PCD) associated with effector-triggered immunity, is not well understood. HR is induced by nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) immune receptors and can involve vacuole-mediated processes, including autophagy. We previously isolated lazarus (laz) suppressors of autoimmunity-triggered PCD in the Arabidopsis thaliana mutant accelerated cell death11 (acd11) and demonstrated that the cell death phenotype is due to ectopic activation of the LAZ5 NB-LRR. We report here that laz4 is mutated in one of three VACUOLAR PROTEIN SORTING35 (VPS35) genes. We verify that LAZ4/VPS35B is part of the retromer complex, which functions in endosomal protein sorting and vacuolar trafficking. We show that VPS35B acts in an endosomal trafficking pathway and plays a role in LAZ5-dependent acd11 cell death. Furthermore, we find that VPS35 homologs contribute to certain forms of NB-LRR protein-mediated autoimmunity as well as pathogen-triggered HR. Finally, we demonstrate that retromer deficiency causes defects in late endocytic/lytic compartments and impairs autophagy-associated vacuolar processes. Our findings indicate important roles of retromer-mediated trafficking during the HR; these may include endosomal sorting of immune components and targeting of vacuolar cargo.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Apoptosis*
  • Arabidopsis / cytology*
  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / immunology*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism*
  • Autophagy
  • Disease Resistance / immunology
  • Endocytosis
  • Genes, Plant
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins / metabolism
  • Multiprotein Complexes / metabolism*
  • Multivesicular Bodies / metabolism
  • Mutation
  • Plant Diseases / immunology
  • Plant Immunity*
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Subunits / metabolism
  • Protein Transport
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Multiprotein Complexes
  • Protein Subunits
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins