The renaissance in the use of encephalography-based research methods to probe the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders is well afoot and continues to advance. Building on the platform of neuroimaging evidence on brain circuit models, magnetoencephalography, scalp electroencephalography, and even invasive electroencephalography are now being used to characterize brain network dysfunctions that underlie major depressive disorder using brain oscillation measurements and associated treatment responses. Such multiple encephalography modalities provide avenues to study pathologic network dynamics with high temporal resolution and over long time courses, opportunities to complement neuroimaging methods and findings, and new approaches to identify quantitative biomarkers that indicate critical targets for brain therapy. Such goals have been facilitated by the ongoing testing of novel invasive neuromodulation therapies, notably, deep brain stimulation, where clinically relevant treatment effects can be monitored at multiple brain sites in a time-locked causal manner. We review key brain rhythms identified in major depressive disorder as foundation for development of putative biomarkers for objectively evaluating neuromodulation success and for guiding deep brain stimulation or other target-based neuromodulation strategies for treatment-resistant depression patients.
Keywords: Depression; Electrophysiology; Neurocircuitry; Neuroimaging; Neuromodulation; Treatment-resistant.
Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.