Host-derived biomarkers at teeth and implants in partially edentulous patients. A 10-year retrospective study

Clin Oral Implants Res. 2016 Feb;27(2):211-7. doi: 10.1111/clr.12566. Epub 2015 Feb 16.


Objectives: To assess a selection of host-derived biomarkers in peri-implant sulcus fluid (PISF) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from adjacent teeth 10 years following implant placement.

Material and methods: Peri-implant sulcus fluid and GCF samples obtained from the deepest sites of 504 implants and 493 adjacent teeth were analysed for levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, MMP-8, MMP-1, and MMP-1 bound to tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1 (MMP-1/TIMP-1) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique.

Results: Overall, MMP-8 was detected in 90% of the sites. In more than 50% of the sites, IL-1β was identified while in 30% of the sites MMP-1, MMP-1/TIMP-1 and MMP-3 were found over the detection level. Increased biomarkers levels from PISF and GCF were positively correlated (r = 0.375-0.702; P < 0.001). However, no qualitative and quantitative differences were found between PISF and GCF. The levels of MMP-1 were negatively correlated with those of MMP-1/TIMP-1 at implants (r = -0.644; P < 0.001). Median MMP-1 levels at implants were high (5.17 pg/site) in subjects with severe chronic periodontitis and low in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic periodontitis (0 pg/site; P = 0.026) or gingivitis (0 pg/site; P = 0.034). Levels of IL-1β were found to be different in GCF according to the periodontal conditions (P = 0.001) with the highest level found in mild-to-moderate periodontitis (6.2 pg/site). Clinical attachment levels at implants demonstrated an inverse correlation with MMP-1/TIMP-1 (r = -0.147; P = 0.001).

Conclusions: Increased levels of MMP-8 and IL-1β in PISF or GCF may be associated with inflammation around teeth and implants while lower levels of MMP-1/TIMP-1 may be an indicator of disease progression around implants.

Keywords: biomarkers; dental implants; gingival crevicular fluid; host response; peri-implant mucositis; peri-implant sulcus fluid; peri-implantitis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / analysis*
  • Dental Implants*
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Gingival Crevicular Fluid / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-1beta / analysis
  • Male
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / analysis
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 / analysis
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 8 / analysis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / analysis


  • Biomarkers
  • Dental Implants
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 3
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 8
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1