Psychosocial influences on engagement in care among HIV-positive young black gay/bisexual and other men who have sex with men

AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2015 Feb;29(2):77-85. doi: 10.1089/apc.2014.0117.


Young black gay/bisexual and other men who have sex with men (YB-GBMSM) living with HIV are at risk for poor engagement in HIV care. Relatively little is known about factors that impact engagement outcomes at various stages along the HIV care continuum in this specific population. The purpose of this analysis was to examine associations between various psychosocial factors and likelihood of engagement at each stage of the care continuum, among a geographically diverse sample of 132 YB-GBMSM living with HIV. Negative self-image, a component of HIV stigma, had an inverse association with early care seeking after HIV diagnosis (OR=1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10). Negative self-image was also inversely associated with adherence to medical appointments (OR=0.95; 95% CI 0.91-0.99), while employment (OR=0.30; 95% CI 0.12-0.75) and ethnic identity affirmation (OR=0.28; 95% CI 0.12-0.68) were both positively associated with appointment adherence. HIV-positive identity salience was associated with a higher likelihood of being on antiretroviral therapy (OR=1.06; 95% CI 1.02, 1.09). These findings highlight the importance of processes related to identity development, as both barriers and facilitators of engagement in care for HIV-positive YB-GBMSM.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Adolescent
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Bisexuality / psychology*
  • Black People / psychology
  • Black or African American / psychology
  • Continuity of Patient Care
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / psychology
  • Health Behavior
  • Health Surveys
  • Homosexuality, Male / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Patient Compliance*
  • Patient Dropouts / statistics & numerical data
  • Regression Analysis
  • Risk Factors
  • Self Concept
  • Social Stigma*
  • Stress, Psychological
  • United States
  • Young Adult


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents