Anti-inflammatory properties of Lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (Permixon®) in a mouse model of prostate hyperplasia

Prostate. 2015 May;75(7):706-22. doi: 10.1002/pros.22953. Epub 2015 Feb 14.


Background: Permixon®, the hexanic lipidosterolic extract of saw palmetto Serenoa repens (LSESr), has shown properties that highlight its benefit in the management of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). To address its actual anti-inflammatory potency, we used a unique pro-inflammatory mouse model of prostate hyperplasia involving prostate-specific over-expression of prolactin transgene (Pb-Prl).

Methods: Six month-old Pb-Prl males were administered with Permixon® per os at the daily dose of 100 mg/kg for 28 days. Body and prostate weights were measured weekly and at sacrifice, respectively. Prostate histology was carefully assessed by a pathologist and detailed quantifications of epithelial and stromal compartments were performed using image analysis software. Luminal cell proliferation index was determined using Ki-67 immunostaining, and apoptosis using Bax/Bcl2 mRNA ratio. Tissue inflammation and fibrosis were assessed by histological analyses then quantified using CD45 immunostaining and picrosirius staining, respectively. Expression profiling of selected pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors was performed by quantitative RT-PCR.

Results: In this model, Permixon® significantly decreased tissue weight and proliferation index specifically in the ventral lobe. Although treatment had no noticeable effect on epithelial histology of any lobe, it markedly reduced the histological hallmarks of inflammation in all lobes. This was confirmed by the global down-regulation of prostate pro-inflammatory cytokine profile, with significant reduction of CCR7, CXCL6, IL-6, and IL-17 expression.

Conclusions: In this mouse model of prostate hyperplasia, Permixon® exerted potent anti-inflammatory properties in the whole prostate while anti-androgenic effects were lobe-specific, suggesting that distinct LSESr components may be involved in these effects. Our results support the beneficial role of Permixon® treatment for BPH. The relevance of CCR7, CXCL6, IL-6, and IL-17 as potential biomarkers to follow up BPH inflammatory status needs to be assessed.

Keywords: BPH; IL-17; IL-6; LSESr; inflammation; mouse model.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / drug effects*
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Down-Regulation / drug effects
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Ki-67 Antigen / genetics
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Organ Size / drug effects
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / drug therapy*
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / immunology
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology
  • RNA / chemistry
  • RNA / genetics
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Serenoa / chemistry*
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein / genetics


  • Cytokines
  • Ki-67 Antigen
  • Mki67 protein, mouse
  • Plant Extracts
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • RNA
  • saw palmetto extract