Context: Vitamin D deficiency is widely prevalent throughout the world. Pregnant women, neonates and infants form most vulnerable groups for vitamin D deficiency.
Objective: (1) To find prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women. (2) To evaluate the effect of supplementation with cholecalciferol in improving vitamin D levels in pregnant women and evaluate its correlation with feto-maternal outcome.
Design: Randomized control trial from years 2010 to 2012.
Setting: Tertiary care centre, Delhi, India.
Participants: One-hundred and eighty pregnant women. Study population divided randomly into two groups: group A: nonintervention (60 women) and group B: intervention (120 women).
Intervention: The intervention group received supplementation of vitamin D in dosages depending upon 25(OH)-D levels.
Main outcome measures: Risk of maternal complications such as preterm labour, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes associated with vitamin D deficiency and risk of low birthweight and poor Apgar score in infants of mothers with vitamin D deficiency.
Results: Adjusted serum 25(OH)-D concentration was lower in group A as compared to group B (mean 46·11 ± 74·21 nmol/l vs 80 ± 51·53 nmol/l). Forty-four percent patients in group A and 20·3% patients in group B developed preterm labour/pre-eclampsia/gestational diabetes. Newborns of mothers in group A had lower cord blood levels of 25(OH)-D levels as compared to group B (mean 43·11 ± 81·32 nmol/l vs 56·8 ± 47·52 nmol/l). They also had lower birthweight of mean 2·4 ± 0·38 kg as compared to group B 2·6 ± 0·33 kg.
Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation reduces risk of maternal comorbidities and helps improve neonatal outcomes.
© 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.