Supplementation of vitamin D in pregnancy and its correlation with feto-maternal outcome

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2015 Oct;83(4):536-41. doi: 10.1111/cen.12751. Epub 2015 Mar 9.


Context: Vitamin D deficiency is widely prevalent throughout the world. Pregnant women, neonates and infants form most vulnerable groups for vitamin D deficiency.

Objective: (1) To find prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women. (2) To evaluate the effect of supplementation with cholecalciferol in improving vitamin D levels in pregnant women and evaluate its correlation with feto-maternal outcome.

Design: Randomized control trial from years 2010 to 2012.

Setting: Tertiary care centre, Delhi, India.

Participants: One-hundred and eighty pregnant women. Study population divided randomly into two groups: group A: nonintervention (60 women) and group B: intervention (120 women).

Intervention: The intervention group received supplementation of vitamin D in dosages depending upon 25(OH)-D levels.

Main outcome measures: Risk of maternal complications such as preterm labour, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes associated with vitamin D deficiency and risk of low birthweight and poor Apgar score in infants of mothers with vitamin D deficiency.

Results: Adjusted serum 25(OH)-D concentration was lower in group A as compared to group B (mean 46·11 ± 74·21 nmol/l vs 80 ± 51·53 nmol/l). Forty-four percent patients in group A and 20·3% patients in group B developed preterm labour/pre-eclampsia/gestational diabetes. Newborns of mothers in group A had lower cord blood levels of 25(OH)-D levels as compared to group B (mean 43·11 ± 81·32 nmol/l vs 56·8 ± 47·52 nmol/l). They also had lower birthweight of mean 2·4 ± 0·38 kg as compared to group B 2·6 ± 0·33 kg.

Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation reduces risk of maternal comorbidities and helps improve neonatal outcomes.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Birth Weight / physiology
  • Body Mass Index
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / drug therapy
  • Pregnancy Complications / prevention & control
  • Vitamin D / therapeutic use*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / drug therapy*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / epidemiology


  • Vitamin D