Calcium phosphate coated Keratin-PCL scaffolds for potential bone tissue regeneration

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2015 Apr;49:746-753. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.01.084. Epub 2015 Jan 27.


The incorporation of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles within or on the surface of electrospun polymeric scaffolds is a popular approach for bone tissue engineering. However, the fabrication of osteoconductive composite scaffolds via benign processing conditions still remains a major challenge to date. In this work, a new method was developed to achieve a uniform coating of calcium phosphate (CaP) onto electrospun keratin-polycaprolactone composites (Keratin-PCL). Keratin within PCL was crosslinked to decrease its solubility, before coating of CaP. A homogeneous coating was achieved within a short time frame (~10min) by immersing the scaffolds into Ca(2+) and (PO4)(3-) solutions separately. Results showed that the incorporation of keratin into PCL scaffolds not only provided nucleation sites for Ca(2+) adsorption and subsequent homogeneous CaP surface deposition, but also facilitated cell-matrix interactions. An improvement in the mechanical strength of the resultant composite scaffold, as compared to other conventional coating methods, was also observed. This approach of developing a biocompatible bone tissue engineering scaffold would be adopted for further in vitro osteogenic differentiation studies in the future.

Keywords: Crosslinking; Electrospinning; Hydroxyapatite; Keratin; Surface coating.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adsorption
  • Bone Regeneration / drug effects*
  • Bone and Bones / drug effects
  • Bone and Bones / metabolism
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Calcium Phosphates / chemistry*
  • Calcium Phosphates / therapeutic use*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible / chemistry*
  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible / therapeutic use*
  • Durapatite / chemistry
  • Durapatite / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Keratins / chemistry*
  • Keratins / therapeutic use*
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / drug effects
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / metabolism
  • Osteogenesis / drug effects
  • Polyesters / chemistry
  • Polyesters / therapeutic use
  • Solubility
  • Solutions / chemistry
  • Tissue Engineering / methods
  • Tissue Scaffolds / chemistry


  • Calcium Phosphates
  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible
  • Polyesters
  • Solutions
  • polycaprolactone
  • Keratins
  • Durapatite
  • calcium phosphate
  • Calcium