Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
, 6, 24
eCollection

To Die or Not to Die? Lessons From Lesion Mimic Mutants

Affiliations
Review

To Die or Not to Die? Lessons From Lesion Mimic Mutants

Quentin Bruggeman et al. Front Plant Sci.

Abstract

Programmed cell death (PCD) is a ubiquitous genetically regulated process consisting in an activation of finely controlled signaling pathways that lead to cellular suicide. Although some aspects of PCD control appear evolutionary conserved between plants, animals and fungi, the extent of conservation remains controversial. Over the last decades, identification and characterization of several lesion mimic mutants (LMM) has been a powerful tool in the quest to unravel PCD pathways in plants. Thanks to progress in molecular genetics, mutations causing the phenotype of a large number of LMM and their related suppressors were mapped, and the identification of the mutated genes shed light on major pathways in the onset of plant PCD such as (i) the involvements of chloroplasts and light energy, (ii) the roles of sphingolipids and fatty acids, (iii) a signal perception at the plasma membrane that requires efficient membrane trafficking, (iv) secondary messengers such as ion fluxes and ROS and (v) the control of gene expression as the last integrator of the signaling pathways.

Keywords: genetics approaches; immunity responses; lesion mimic mutants; plant; programmed cell death.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Simplified representation of the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis pathway and chlorophyll catabolism into the chloroplast. Factors disrupted in LMM are indicated in red whereas factor disrupted in suppressors of LMM are in green. ACD1/PAO1/LLS1, Accelerated cell death 1/Pheophorbide a oxygenase/Lethal leaf spot1; ACD2/RCCR, Accelerated cell death 2/Red chlorophyll catabolite reductase; ChlS, Chlorophyll synthase; FC, Fe chelatase; FLU, Fluorescent; GLU-TR, Glutamyl-tRNA reductase; LES22/UROD, Lesion 22/Uroporphyrinogen III decarboxylase; LIN2/CPO, Lesion initiation 2/Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase; Mg-Ch, Mg chelatase; OEP16-1, Outer plastid envelope protein 16-1; PBS, Phytochromobilin synthase; PORA, NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase; PPO, Protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase; RUG1/PGBD, Rugosa 1/Porphobilinogen deaminase; ULF3/HY1, FLU3 written backwards/Heme oxygenase 1; UPM, Uroporphyrinogen III methylase; UROS, Uroporphyrinogen III synthase.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Simplified representation of sphingolipid metabolism in plants. The de novo biosynthesis of ceramides occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum and synthesis of more complex sphingolipids occurs in the Golgi. Sphingosine and phytosphingosine are both referred in the text as Long-chain Basis (LCB). Factors disrupted in LMM are indicated in red. AAL, Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici; ACD5/11, Accelerated cell death 5/11, are a ceramide kinase and a ceramide-1-phosphate transporter, respectively; ERH1/IPCS2, Enhancing RPW8-mediated HR-like cell death 1/Inositolphosphoceramide synthase 2; FB1, Fumosin B1; LCB1/2a/2b, Long-chain base 1/2a/2b, are subunits which form the Serine palmitol-transferase; LOH1/2/2 Lag one homolog1/2/3, are ceramide synthases; MIPS1, Myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase; PIS, Phosphatidylinositol synthase; SBH, Sphingoid base hydroxylase; SphK, Sphingosin kinase.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 30 PubMed Central articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. Abdel-Hamid H., Chin K., Moeder W., Shahinas D., Gupta D., Yoshioka K. (2013). A suppressor screen of the chimeric AtCNGC11/12 reveals residues important for intersubunit interactions of cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels. Plant Physiol. 162, 1681–1693. 10.1104/pp.113.217539 - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Ahn I. P. (2007). Disturbance of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent signalling pathway is responsible for the resistance of Arabidopsis dnd1 against Pectobacterium carotovorum infection. Mol. Plant Pathol. 8, 747–759. 10.1111/j.1364-3703.2007.00428.x - DOI - PubMed
    1. Ali R., Ma W., Lemtiri-Chlieh F., Tsaltas D., Leng Q., Von Bodman S., et al. . (2007). Death don't have no mercy and neither does calcium: Arabidopsis CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE GATED CHANNEL2 and innate immunity. Plant Cell 19, 1081–1095. 10.1105/tpc.106.045096 - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Alvarez M. E., Nota F., Cambiagno D. A. (2010). Epigenetic control of plant immunity. Mol. Plant Pathol. 11, 563–576. 10.1111/j.1364-3703.2010.00621.x - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Apel K., Hirt H. (2004). Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative stress, and signal transduction. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 55, 373–399. 10.1146/annurev.arplant.55.031903.141701 - DOI - PubMed

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback