Determining predictors of early response to exenatide in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

J Diabetes Res. 2015;2015:162718. doi: 10.1155/2015/162718. Epub 2015 Jan 20.


Exenatide is a GLP-1 analogue used in the management of T2DM yet within a subset of patients fails due to adverse side effects or from failure to attain the end goal. This retrospective observational study aimed to determine whether we could predict response to exenatide in patients with T2DM. 112 patients on exenatide were included with patient age, gender, duration of T2DM, medications alongside exenatide and weight, BMI, and HbA1c at baseline and 3 and 6 months of exenatide use being recorded. 63 responded with 11 mmol/mol reduction from baseline HbA1c after six months and 49 did not respond to exenatide. HbA1c solely differed significantly between cohorts at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months (P < 0.05). Regression analyses identified a negative linear relationship with higher baseline HbA1c correlating to greater reductions in HbA1c by 6 months (P < 0.0001). HbA1c was the sole predictor of exenatide response with higher baseline HbA1c increasing the odds of response by 5% (P = 0.004). Patients with HbA1c reductions ≥15-20% by 3 months were more likely to be responders by 6 months (P = 0.033). Our study identified that baseline HbA1c acted as the sole predictor of exenatide response and that response may be determined after 3 months of exenatide administration.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Anthropometry
  • Body Mass Index
  • Body Weight / drug effects
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Exenatide
  • Female
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / analogs & derivatives
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Linear Models
  • Liraglutide
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Peptides / therapeutic use*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Regression Analysis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Venoms / therapeutic use*


  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Peptides
  • Venoms
  • lixisenatide
  • Liraglutide
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Exenatide