Functional heterogeneity of CD4+ T cells in leishmaniasis

Immunol Today. 1989 Feb;10(2):40-5. doi: 10.1016/0167-5699(89)90302-2.


In this article F.Y. Liew summarizes the evidence for the functional heterogeneity of CD4+ T cells from studies of immune regulation in the parasitic disease, leishmaniasis. Recent findings suggest that the heterogeneity of CD4+ T cells may extend beyond the current Th1 and Th2 classification and that these T-cell subsets manifest some of their functions via the lymphokines they secrete, and that the balance of these determines the outcome of the infection.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Protozoan / biosynthesis
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / classification*
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / transplantation
  • Disease Susceptibility
  • Humans
  • Hypersensitivity, Delayed / immunology
  • Immunity, Cellular
  • Immunization, Passive
  • Leishmania / immunology
  • Leishmaniasis / immunology*
  • Leishmaniasis / pathology
  • Leishmaniasis / prevention & control
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Vaccination


  • Antibodies, Protozoan