MicroRNA regulation of central glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signalling in depression

Transl Psychiatry. 2015 Feb 17;5(2):e511. doi: 10.1038/tp.2015.11.

Abstract

Although multiple studies have reported that peripheral glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is reduced in depression, cerebral GDNF signalling has yet to be examined in this condition. Here, we report an isoform-specific decrease in GDNF family receptor alpha 1 (GFRA1) mRNA expression, resulting in lowered GFRα1a protein levels in basolateral amygdala (BLA) samples from depressed subjects. Downregulation of GFRα1a was associated with increased expression of microRNAs, including miR-511, predicted to bind to long 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR)-containing transcripts (GFRA1-L) coding for GFRα1a. Transfection of human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) with a miR-511 mimic was sufficient to repress GFRA1-L/GFRα1a without altering GFRα1b, and resulted in pathway-specific changes in immediate early gene activity. Unexpectedly, GFRα1a knockdown did not reduce NPC responses to GDNF. Rather, it greatly enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling. This effect appeared to be mediated by GDNF/soluble GFRα1/neural cell adhesion molecule binding, and substituting the soluble GFRα1a/GFRα1b content of miR-511-transfected NPCs with that of controls rescued signalling. In light of previous reports suggesting that GFRα1b can inhibit GFRα1a-induced neuroplasticity, we also assessed the association between GFRα1 and doublecortin (DCX; a hyperplastic marker) in human BLA. Although controls displayed coordinated expression of GFRα1a and b isoforms and these correlated positively with DCX, the only significant association observed among depressed subjects was a strongly negative correlation between GFRα1b and DCX. Taken together, these results suggest that microRNA-mediated reductions of GFRα1a in depression change the quality, rather than the quantity, of GDNF signalling. They also suggest that central GDNF signalling may represent a novel target for antidepressant treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Amygdala / metabolism*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / genetics*
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / metabolism
  • Down-Regulation
  • Female
  • Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor / genetics*
  • Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor / metabolism
  • Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Receptors / genetics*
  • Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Receptors / metabolism
  • Humans
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System / genetics*
  • Male
  • MicroRNAs / genetics*
  • MicroRNAs / metabolism
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins / genetics
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism
  • Middle Aged
  • Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • Neuropeptides / genetics
  • Neuropeptides / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / metabolism
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction / genetics
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • GFRA1 protein, human
  • Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
  • Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Receptors
  • MIRN340 microRNA, human
  • MIRN511 microRNA, human
  • MicroRNAs
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins
  • Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • Neuropeptides
  • RNA, Messenger
  • doublecortin protein
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
  • RET protein, human