Traditionally venoms are used from thousands of years to treat pain, inflammation, and arthritis. In Ayurveda "Suchika Voron" and "Shodhona" were practiced against pain. In the present study, venom composition of the Indian honeybee Apis florea (AF), Apis dorsata (AD), and Apis cerana indica (AC) were analyzed using electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). This venom analysis was used to shed light upon the correlation in structure and the venom composition among the three species in Indian fields. Among the three species, Indian Apis dorsata bee venom (ADBV) is evaluated for an anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive activity, and antiarthritic activity in different animal models. The effect of ADBV is revealed for its anti-arthritic activity in the FCA- and CIA-induced arthritis model in male Wistar rats. The immunosuppressant action of ADBV was studied by hemagglutination antibody titer. It has been found that ADBV possesses anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. In FCA- and CIA-induced arthritis, ADBV able to decrease rheumatoid factor, pain perception parameters, C-reactive protein, erythrocytes sedimentation rate, urinary hydroxyproline, serum transaminase level, and serum nitric oxide level when compared with diseased control arthritic rats. IL-6, TNF-α level was found to be decrease by ADBV treatment in collagen induced arthritis model. Thus this study confirmed the scientific validation behind utilization of venom in Indian Apis dorsata bees in arthritis and inflammatory diseases which has been not reported till date.
Keywords: ADBV; IL-6; TNF-α; anti-arthritic; freund’s complete adjuvant; hemagglutination antibody titre; type II collagen-induced arthritis; urinary hydroxyproline.