Synthesis and in vitro pharmacology of arpromidine and related phenyl(pyridylalkyl)guanidines, a potential new class of positive inotropic drugs

J Med Chem. 1989 Aug;32(8):1963-70. doi: 10.1021/jm00128a045.


Replacement of the cimetidine moiety in impromidine (1,N1-[3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl]-N2-[2-[[(5-methyl-1H-imidazol-4- yl)methyl]thio]ethyl]guanidine) by more lipophilic H2-nonspecific pheniramine-like structures resulted in potent H2 agonists with up to 160 times the activity of histamine in the isolated, spontaneously beating guinea pig right atrium. Additionally, the compounds proved to be moderate H1 antagonists. Highest H2-agonistic potency was found in compounds characterized by a three-membered carbon chain connecting the aromatic rings and the guanidine group. The activity in the atrium was increased 2-4-fold by halogen substituents in the meta or para position of the phenyl ring. Highest H1-antagonistic potency resides in the group of para-halogenated compounds, p-F representing the optimal substituent in both receptor models. The corresponding guanidine 52 (arpromidine, N1-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-pyridin-2-ylpropyl]-N2-[3-(1H-imidazol-4- yl)propyl]guanidine) combines about 100 times the activity of histamine at the H2 receptor with H1-antagonistic potency in the range of pheniramine. Further increase in the activity on the atrium was achieved by disubstitution with halogen on the phenyl ring, such as 3,4-F2, 3,5-F2, and 3,4-Cl2 (63-65). The 2-pyridyl group in arpromidine was replaced by 3-pyridyl without significant change in H2 agonistic activity, whereas the 4-pyridyl and phenyl analogues were less active. The rank order of potency in the atrium was in good agreement with the positive inotropic effects found in isolated, perfused guinea pig hearts, where 63-65 were the most potent compounds as well.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cardiotonic Agents / chemical synthesis*
  • Chemical Phenomena
  • Chemistry
  • Guanidines / chemical synthesis*
  • Guanidines / pharmacology
  • Guinea Pigs
  • Heart / drug effects
  • Histamine H1 Antagonists / chemical synthesis
  • Histamine H1 Antagonists / pharmacology
  • Imidazoles / chemical synthesis*
  • Imidazoles / pharmacology
  • Impromidine
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Receptors, Histamine H2 / drug effects
  • Structure-Activity Relationship


  • Cardiotonic Agents
  • Guanidines
  • Histamine H1 Antagonists
  • Imidazoles
  • Receptors, Histamine H2
  • arpromidine
  • Impromidine